Saturday, 21 July 2012 22:58
The first evidence of settlement in what is now Dobrich dates from 4th-3rd centuries BC. Ruins from AD 2nd-4th century and 7th-11th century have also been found, including a Bulgar necropolis featuring pagan graves in the centre of the city.
During the 11th century, Pecheneg invasions devastated the interior of Dobruja, leaving many settlements in the region uninhabited at the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire. The settlement was founded for a second time in the 16th century by the Turkish merchant Hacıoğlu Pazarcık, whose name it bore until 1882. According to Ottoman data from 1646–1650, there were over 1,000 houses in the city, about 100 shops, three inns, three Turkish baths, twelve mosques and twelve schools.
From the 17th to the 19th century, the city developed as a handicraft, trade and agricultural centre, being famous for its weaving, homespun tailoring, coppersmith's trade, leather-work and agricultural products, such as wheat, linseed, wool and cheese.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the city's population reached 12,000, many of whom refugees from eastern Bulgaria after the Russo-Turkish Wars. The cultural appearance of the city was also formed. The first Orthodox church was built in 1843.
The city was liberated from the Ottoman Empire on 27 January 1878 and renamed Dobrich on 19 February 1882 after Dobrotitsa, a medieval ruler of Dobruja. This was done by means of a decree issued by knyaz Alexander I.
After the Treaty of Bucharest of 1913 (confirmed by the Treaty of Neuilly of 1919), Dobrich and the whole of Southern Dobruja were incorporated in Romania for a period until 1940. During that time, the city bore the name Bazargic and was centre of Caliacra County (judeţ in Romanian). On 25 September 1940, the Bulgarian army marched into the city after signing Treaty of Craiova on September 7, 1940; date celebrated as the city's holiday, later changed to September 25.
During the period of Communist rule, Dobrich was renamed Tolbukhin (Толбухин) after Marshal of the Soviet Union Fyodor Tolbukhin. On 19 September 1990, a presidential decree restored the city's old name of Dobrich. Despite the renewing of the name Dobrich archtectually maintains ex-communist outlook even in 21st century.
The town of Dobrich is the administrative, economic, and service-providing centre of a district that encompasses eight municipalities. The town is the second biggest economic centre in northeast Bulgaria. It lies on an area of 10,950 hectares, and its territory is highly urbanized.
The territory of Dobrich municipality falls in the temperate continental sub-zone, which is part of the European continental climatic zone. The average annual temperature of the air is 10.2ºC. The lowest temperature was recorded in the month of January (22.7ºC below zero), while the highest temperature was recorded in August/September (39.1ºC above freezing).
The region is not characterized by a variety of soils. The black earth, or humus, is the most common type, which determines high natural fertility. Alluvial soils can also be found at the bottom of valleys.
The region lacks surface water flows. Surface water is drained by a north-oriented river network formed in past geological ages. The density of the network is below 0.250 km/km2.
Natural vegetation covers limited areas. It has been supplanted by crops, and is preserved on places which are not suitable for agriculture. However, the existing bunches of trees suggest that huge forests once covered this land.